Category Archives: Exam Preparation

Media Section B – Group Facts

Digital Technologies

  • Over 84% of adults in the UK have access to an internet connection and 70% use the internet at least once per day.
  • Avatar had it’s own website which attracted at least 1,200,000 fans into watching the film
  • 367,000 people watched A Field In England on Film4
  • The Infidel had been watched approximately 1,000 times on iTunes on the opening weekend for VOD

Media Ownership

  • The “Big Five” media conglomerates own over 90% of the market share
  • 20th Century Fox owns 10.8% of the market share
  • 20th Century Fox produced Avatar, which had a budget of over £160,000,000
  • The Infidel, by Revolver Entertainment (a small independent company) had a budget of £30,000

Digital Distribution

  • Avatar was available on iTunes with special cuts for a premium price of $20
  • A Field In England had 3,000 iTunes viewings on the opening weekend
  • The Infidel gained hundreds of supporters through it’s innovative suggestions page it created on the internet
  • The Infidel spent £15,000 of it’s £30,000 budget on marketing via the internet.

Media Section B – Opening Paragraphs

Digital Technologies

Digital technology has been fundamental to the modern style of distribution and consumption for films on a global scale. The rapid growth of the internet, with more than 84% of adults, and 70% using the internet at least once per day in the UK has meant a revolutionary method of marketing any film in general. The diversification has allowed smaller film producers to compete with some of the larger media conglomerates and has also led to more people in general watching films, as the target audience for the film market is greater than ever.

Media Ownership

Media ownership is a topic widely discussed by individuals with an interest in media. Really, there are just 5 big media conglomerates who control just over 90% of the market share for media. This is good for the conglomerates because it means huge profits, well into the billions, as they control multiple sectors through the release of the film by their subsidiary companies. However, it also means that smaller companies can face many challenges getting their product out to the public without spending a large amount of money to be able to compete and taking enormous risks they simply cannot afford to do. The media conglomerates, including 20th Century Fox, which owns 10.8% of the market share really dominate the market and it is an important topic of concern for media producers all over the world.

Digital Distribution

Digital distribution, is primarily the distribution of the media products via the internet. As the internet is a relatively new technology, there are still new and innovative ways media companies are making the use of this technology in the form of marketing and consumption. Video On Demand (VOD) is one method of the distribution of films, and in some ways it is also a form of marketing. For example iTunes is used for advertising but also viewing products online. Digital distribution has allowed for some smaller films to really succeed and has brought budgets for some films down as a consequence because it can be inexpensive. However, digital distribution also poses another question on piracy and due to the rapid changes, it is something which can be hard to regulate effectively.

Exam Questions Section B Task Grouping

Digital Technologies
Evaluate the role of digital technologies in the marketing
and consumption of products in the media area you have

Media Ownership
What impact does media ownership have upon the range of
products available to audiences in the media area you have

Digital Distribution
“Cross-media convergence and synergy are vital processes in
the successful marketing of media products to audiences.”
To what extent do you agree with this statement in relation
to your chosen media area?

Digital Distribution
To what extent does digital distribution affect the
marketing and consumption of media products in the media
area you have studied?

Digital Distribution
“Successful media products depend as much upon marketing and
distribution to a specific audience as they do upon good
production practices.” To what extent would you agree with
this statement, within the media area you have studied?

Media Ownership
Discuss the issues raised by media ownership in the
production and exchange of media texts in your chosen media

Digital Technology
What significance does the continuing development of digital
media technology have for media institutions and audiences?

Media Ownership
“Media production is dominated by global institutions, which
sell their products and services to national audiences.” To
what extent do you agree with this statement?

Digital Technologies
How important is technological convergence for institutions
and audiences within a media area which you have studied?

Digital Distribution
Discuss the ways in which media products are produced and
distributed to audiences, within a media area, which you
have studied.



Section B Exam Preparation

To what extent does digital distribution affect the marketing and consumption of media products in the media area you have studied?


Digital distribution has been revolutionary to the modern method of both marketing films and then consuming them. Why?

  • Advance of capabilities of the internet and the popularity of the internet
  • People watch films on VOD and special streaming services now, unlike in the past
  • YouTube and trailers
  • Website advertising
  • Social media as a form of marketing

-Plan for essay-


“Digital distribution has been revolutionary to the modern method of both marketing films and then consuming them-”

Case study of “A Field In England” 5th July 2013

– Released on VOD, iTunes and Virgin Media in a simultaneous release model, unlike the standard hollywood model of release.

-Small budget of £316,879 so advertising mainly through internet and social media including Twitter. Trended #1 on the day before release which built up the hype.

-Relatively small number of cinema screenings in the UK (17), so watching A Field In England online was even more successful due to the increased demand to view, in one platform or another.

-Rentals on iTunes to see A Field In England were over 3,000 in the opening weekend, which is decent profit for a low budget film

Case study of “The Infidel” 9th April 2010

– Initially released in cinemas, although slightly more like the standard hollywood model of release, with 29 UK cinema screenings (as opposed to just 17)

-Extremely low budget of £30,000 – very successful even for lower online rentals

-Support of YouTube as advertising – at least 30% of the budget was spent on P&A spending to make a good effort to get consumers attention

-Approximately 1,000 rentals online to see the film (Less successful)

-Took longer to come out onto VOD – lost hype over time, could have been more successful earlier

Case study of “Avatar” 17th December 2009

-Standard hollywood style release

-20th Century Fox – 8.8% market share – $273,000,000 budget (big)

-P&A spending was a large proportion of this

-Advertising on TV, radio, internet, trailers at cinema

-3D appeal – at the time 3D wasn’t a big thing – people felt the need to see it at the cinema -> less success on VOD

-Still could be cheaper to see Avatar on VOD than cinema

-Special editions available on iTunes to promote consumption which included a directors cut at more expense ($20)


“Digital distribution has significant impacts on both marketing and consumption of different media products in film-”




Part B Mindmap





Media Revision – Exam Question with “Regional Identity” as the topic

From Doc Martin extract

Mise en scene

  • Doc Martin wears a dark coloured very formal looking suit, one of which you might find typical in a city region. However, the local people in Devon are wearing much more casual clothing and in some instances more rural looking ‘farming’ clothing which shows the contrast between the two and shows how Doc Martin is out-of-place.
  • The acting of the local characters is often far more relaxed and stress-free than Doc Martin who appears to be rather stressed and acts at a much faster pace than the other actors. This shows how he is different and is used to acting differently as he comes from the city.
  • Another point is that a number of the actors are in pairs or groups. Doc Martin however is almost the lone wolf and doesn’t connect himself with anybody particularly. This shows his feeling of disconnection due to the regional identity as a key factor.
  • Doc Martin visually appears to be quite pale looking, possibly exaggerated through a filter. However, this contrasts with the other actors who appear to be healthier, country people. This is stereotypical for the situation because it exemplifies how people from cities don’t spend a lot of time outside in comparison to people living in the countryside.


  • There is a low angle shot looking up at Doc Martin who visually appears to tower over the camera. This shows power and takes place when Doc Martin is with the police officer. Despite a normal audience considering the police officer to have more of an element of power, instead Doc Martin is shown to be in control over the whole situation. This links to regional identity because Doc Martin thinks he is in control because he is from elsewhere.
  • At times, handheld shots are taken to emphasise moments of instability. The shaking shots appear to make Doc Martin seem more stressed and the other actors are often filmed with tripods so they appear to be more comfortable in the situation. This shows how Doc Martin might feel insecure in his environment with different people.
  • There are often long takes of the scenery which shows a lot of the rural environment and the small community spirit. This further demonstrates how Doc Martin doesn’t feel like he’s settled in.

Sound Design

  • The music used is often regionally appropriate non diegetic composed score. This contrasts with Doc Martin as an individual because it is not what you would expect as an audience to represent Doc Martin who clearly looks like he is from a more busy city environment.
  • There are often foley effects when outside which further portrays Doc Martin’s feeling of disconnection as they are seaside noises. It makes it clear to see that Doc Martin is not in his normal environment.
  • Within the non diegetic composed score, when the group of girls insult him with a local term, the music becomes darker, with deeper sounds. This emphasises how Doc Martin is not getting on very well with the locals and he almost see’s them as the enemy.


  • There is a distinct pattern within the editing which clarifies how Doc Martin feels within the situation between the locals. There are often things happening, such as the dog jumping through the window, followed by a reaction shot which highlights how Doc Martin is not getting on very well with being in a new area. This pattern stays within the scene almost throughout and highlights how he feels about the countryside and the locals.
  • There is the juxtaposition of the group of girls wearing bright clothing and being happy followed by the shot of Doc Martin looking dark and miserable, showing how he is disconnected from the society.
  • There are often quick takes of Doc Martin which makes it seem more as if he is far more busy than anybody else and is up to a lot more, showing how he is not like the locals who are more relaxed. This addresses the idea of regional identity because he is different from everybody else who appears to be more relaxed.

Infographic of Film Distribution


Case Study – Distribution of The Infidel

The Infidel, directed by Josh Appignanesi and written by David Baddiel is a comedy drama released on the 9th April 2010. Revolver Entertainment was responsible for the release and hit the target of getting the film released for 9th April 2010. Whilst The Infidel, like A Field In England both used the internet to help distribute their products, The Infidel also used the internet in new and innovative ways to not only promote their film and increase the awareness, but also to actually help construct the film.

The target audience for the film was 18-35 50/50 male/female split to ensure that a very large audience was addressed to ensure higher numbers of viewers for the film – maximising profits.

One technique in particular which was demonstrated by Revolver Entertainment to help spread an early buzz for the film, encourage user generated content and also to do some primary research into audience profiling found the internet absolutely fundamental and it helped to build up the anticipation tremendously.

Users were invited to upload religious jokes to the website in different ways and then vote on them to try and determine which jokes were the funniest but also to identify one of the key questions Revolver Entertainment wanted to address which was “Which religion is funniest?”

The website was key to addressing the correct audience. It allowed Revolver Entertainment to find out the demographics and age categories of those most interested in the film this allowed the company to really focus on the audience.

On the opening weekend the film was released to a grand total of 29 cinemas in the UK, generating £135,448. However, it stayed in cinemas for longer and this was quite successful for The Infidel, as it eventually made £590,512 at the box office. The success of the film within cinemas allowed Revolver Entertainment to then produce both DVD and Blu-Ray versions of the film. 2 weeks after the initial release, the film had generated a grand total of £442,950. This shows that keeping the film in the cinemas for longer was important because releasing the film in the cinemas also acted as a way of advertising in itself.

The Infidels success also meant that it could expand further and it was released to Ireland too on the 4th June 2010, roughly 2 months after being released to cinemas in England. Not to mention, distribution rights to the film were sold to 62 different countries due to it’s success. This further generated additional income.

The actual production cost for The Infidel was rather low. Below are the costs for the production process.

Build £19,500
Edit and moderation £2,000
Update £3,000
Hosting £1,500
Online ads and seeding £4,000
TOTAL = £30,000
This shows that the film was in fact produced on a very low budget. This is similar to A Field In England, except it was produced on a much lower budget and really made use of social media to cut out a lot of the costs which would be associated with the P&A. Today it is still being distributed on iTunes, VUDU and Amazon, whereby you can purchase the film or alternatively rent it. The cost of the film is typically about £7 and to rent it, it would cost about £2.50. This is only slightly cheaper than much larger films and newer films, but the price is set for a reason, and so it must be selling well at the designated price.